Brunei Darussalam grew to become Asean’s sixth member on Jan. 7, 1984, proper after the nation gained independence from Britain. South Korea and Brunei established diplomatic relations the identical 12 months. South Korea established its consulate normal in Bandar Seri Begawan, the capital metropolis of the nation positioned on the island of Borneo, in September 1983, and this grew to become ambassadorial degree on Jan. 1, 1984.
Bilateral commerce between the 2 nations final 12 months amounted to $670 million, with exports to Brunei being $60 million and imports being $610 million. Crude oil and pure gasoline manufacturing accounts for greater than 95 p.c of Brunei’s exports and round 65 p.c of its GDP. South Korea imports over 1 million tons or about four.three p.c of its liquefied pure gasoline (LNG) provide from Brunei yearly.
In 2018, 15,785 South Koreans visited Brunei, whereas four,893 Bruneians visited South Korea, in response to the South Korean Ministry of International Affairs.
The Brunei Imaginative and prescient 2035 is the nation’s long-term financial improvement plan to create new development engines and has eight methods masking areas together with training, economic system, safety and infrastructure improvement. Throughout President Moon Jae-in’s state go to to the nation in March, the 2 sides agreed to advance cooperation in info and communication expertise, sensible cities and renewable vitality and protection.
Bilateral diplomatic relations between South Korea and Cambodia had been established on Oct. 30, 1997 after an official state go to by Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen to Seoul in 1996. Nonetheless, the historical past of bilateral relations may be traced to 1970 when the U.S.-backed Lon Nol authorities got here to energy. A South Korean Embassy in Cambodia was established in 1970, however that embassy was closed because the bilateral relationship was severed when the Khmer Rouge got here to energy in 1975. Cambodia joined Asean in April 30, 1999. In 1998, the South Korean Consultant’s Workplace in Cambodia was elevated to an embassy, and in 2001, the Cambodian Embassy in South Korea was established.
Bilateral commerce between the 2 nations final 12 months rose by 11 p.c and amounted to $970 million. Korean exports to Cambodia amounted to $660 million, and imports had been at $310 million in 2018. Investments got here to a cumulative whole of $5.eight billion as of 2018. Greater than 300 South Korean corporations are doing enterprise in Cambodia.
In 2018, there have been 301,770 South Korean guests to Cambodia and 36,780 Cambodian guests to South Korea, in response to the South Korean Ministry of International Affairs. Likewise, there have been 11,969 South Koreans dwelling in Cambodia and 47,012 Cambodians dwelling in South Korea as of 2018.
The South Korean authorities invested $632 million in improvement cooperation in Cambodia from 1996 to 2018. From 2019 to 2023, South Korea plans to supply an extra $200 million in concessional loans.
Indonesia and South Korea established diplomatic relations on Sept. 17, 1973. Nonetheless, the 2 nations’ consular-level relationship dates again to August 1966. Indonesia is among the 5 Asean founding members that signed the Bangkok Declaration in 1967. Jakarta can also be the host of the Asean Secretariat established in February 1976. The Mission of the Republic of Korea to Asean was established on October 2012 in Jakarta.
Throughout a state go to to Jakarta in November 2017, South Korean President Moon Jae-in and Indonesian President Joko Widodo agreed to raise the 2 nations’ bilateral relations to a particular strategic partnership by way of the “Korea-Indonesia Joint Imaginative and prescient Assertion for Co-Prosperity and Peace.” The imaginative and prescient assertion focuses on 4 areas of cooperation: protection and overseas affairs, bilateral commerce and infrastructure improvement, people-to-people exchanges and regional and international cooperation. In 2012, Indonesia and South Korea agreed to determine the Indonesia-ROK Complete Financial Partnership (IK-CEPA) to extend commerce and financial relations.
In October this 12 months, South Korea reached a preliminary settlement with Indonesia on the Complete Financial Partnership Settlement forward of the conclusion of a ultimate deal inside this 12 months.
Bilateral commerce between the 2 nations final 12 months amounted to $19.9 billion. South Korean exports to Indonesia amounted to $eight.eight billion, and imports had been $11.1 billion in 2018. In 2018, there have been 358,527 South Korean guests to Indonesia, and 250,248 Indonesian guests to South Korea, in response to the South Korean Ministry of International Affairs. There have been 22,zero84 South Koreans dwelling in Indonesia and 47,366 Indonesians dwelling in South Korea as of 2018.
South Korea and Indonesia are additionally members of Mikta, a gaggle of center powers within the G20.
Laos and South Korea established diplomatic relations in June 1974, however they had been severed the next 12 months after the takeover by the Communist Pathet Lao motion. The 2 nations reestablished diplomatic relations on Oct. 25, 1995. Laos, together with Myanmar, joined Asean on July 23, 1997.
Laos envisions turning into the “battery of Southeast Asia” with its strategic location sitting on the Mekong River, which flows by way of 1,835 kilometers (1,140 miles) of the nation from its north to its south, and having invested closely in hydroelectric energy and constructing dams on the primary stream and its tributaries.
Bilateral commerce between the 2 nations final 12 months amounted to $114.1 million. Bilateral commerce rose by 11 p.c final 12 months. South Korean exports to Laos amounted to $84 million, and imports had been at $30.1 million in 2018. In 2018, there have been 174,405 South Korean guests to Laos and 12,394 Laotian guests to South Korea, in response to the South Korean Ministry of International Affairs. Likewise, there have been three,zero50 South Koreans dwelling in Laos and 1,568 Laotians dwelling in South Korea as of 2018.
South Korea plans to supply $500 million to Laos by way of the Financial Growth Cooperation Fund between 2020 and 2023. South Korean funding in Laos ranks fifth in overseas direct funding at $270 million in 39 tasks from 2010 to 2018.
Subsequent 12 months will mark 60 years of diplomatic relations between South Korea and Malaysia, whose diplomatic relations had been established on Feb. 23, 1960. Malaysia is among the 5 Asean founding members that signed the Bangkok Declaration in 1967.
Malaysia is reviving and upgrading its “Look East Coverage,” directed towards South Korea and Japan, first launched in 1982 by Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad.
Malaysia has seen an annual development of over 5 p.c on common. Bilateral commerce between South Korea and Malaysia final 12 months amounted to $19.2 billion.
South Korean exports to Indonesia amounted to $9 billion, and imports had been at $10.2 billion in 2018. South Korean investments in Malaysia between 1968 and 2018 got here to a complete of $eight.2 billion, whereas Malaysian investments in South Korea throughout the identical interval amounted to some $7.9 billion.
In 2018, there have been 616,783 South Korean guests to Malaysia and 383,467 Malaysian guests to South Korea. There have been 20,861 South Koreans dwelling in Malaysia and 12,227 Malaysians dwelling in South Korea as of final 12 months.
South Korea and Vietnam established diplomatic relations on Dec. 22, 1992. Vietnam joined Asean because the seventh member on July 28, 1995.
In 2009, Vietnam and South Korea upgraded their bilateral relationship to a strategic cooperative partnership. The South Korea-Vietnam free commerce settlement (FTA) got here into impact in December 2015, increasing financial cooperation between the 2 nations. After the FTA went into impact, South Korea is now Vietnam’s second-largest buying and selling companion, and Vietnam is South Korea’s fourth-largest buying and selling companion after China, the USA and Japan.
The whole bilateral commerce quantity final 12 months amounted to $68.three billion, in comparison with $500 million in 1992 once they first established diplomatic relations. South Korean exports to Vietnam amounted to $48.6 billion, and imports had been at $19.6 billion in 2018. Vietnam’s estimated financial development charge is over 7 p.c.
Vietnam can also be a well-liked vacationer vacation spot for South Korea. In 2018, over three.45 million South Korean guests went to Vietnam, up 44 p.c from the earlier 12 months, whereas there have been 519,448 Vietnamese guests to South Korea, in response to the South Korean Ministry of International Affairs. There have been 172,684 Koreans dwelling in Vietnam — together with breakout star, Park Grasp-seo, who lately renewed his contract as coach to the Vietnamese males’s nationwide soccer crew — in 2018. Likewise, 196,633 Vietnamese had been dwelling in South Korea as of final 12 months. Vietnam can also be residence to greater than 7,000 South Korean corporations.
Thailand was the second nation after the USA to ship troops to assist South Korea in the course of the 1950-53 Korean Battle, deploying over 6300 troopers. The Thai casualties included over 130 lifeless and lots of extra who had been wounded. Thailand and South Korea established diplomatic relations on Oct. 1, 1958, by way of the issuing of a joint communiqué. Nonetheless, ties between the nations may be traced again to the late 14th century, when Siamese envoys had been granted an viewers with King Gongyang, the final king of the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392).
Asean was based on Aug. eight, 1967, in Bangkok, and Thailand is among the 5 Asean founding members together with Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore that signed the Bangkok Declaration.
Bilateral commerce between the 2 nations final 12 months amounted to $14.1 billion. South Korean exports to Thailand amounted to $eight.5 billion, and imports had been at $5.6 billion in 2018. Greater than 400 South Korean companies do enterprise in Thailand, the second-largest economic system in Southeast Asia after Indonesia.
In 2018, greater than 1.78 million guests traveled from South Korea to Thailand, whereas there have been 565,784 Thai guests to South Korea, in response to the South Korean Ministry of International Affairs. Likewise, there have been 20,123 South Koreans dwelling in Thailand and 197,764 Thai folks dwelling in South Korea as of final 12 months.
Singapore, barely greater in measurement than South Korea’s capital metropolis of Seoul, is among the 5 Asean founding members that signed the Bangkok Declaration in 1967. Singapore and South Korea established formal diplomatic relations on Aug. eight, 1975. Nonetheless, over a decade earlier than that, South Korea established a commerce workplace, the Korea Commerce Centre, in 1964 and a consulate normal in 1971.
The South Korea-Singapore free commerce settlement took impact in 2006, a key milestone in bilateral relations. Bilateral commerce between the 2 nations final 12 months amounted to over $19.eight billion. South Korean exports to Singapore reached $11.eight billion, and imports had been at $eight billion in 2018. Funding amounted to a cumulative whole of $5.6 billion as of 2018. In 2018, South Korea was Singapore’s Ninth-largest buying and selling companion and Singapore was the sixth largest investor in South Korea.
In 2018, 629,451 South Korean guests travelled to Singapore, whereas there have been 232,359 Singaporean guests to South Korea, in response to the South Korean Ministry of International Affairs. Likewise, there have been 20,959 South Koreans dwelling in Singapore and 6,281 Singaporeans dwelling in South Korea.
Together with the 30th anniversary of South Korea-Asean ties, this 12 months additionally marks the 70th anniversary of diplomatic relations between the Philippines and South Korea. Bilateral relations between South Korea and the Philippines date again to March three, 1949, when the Philippines grew to become the fifth state to acknowledge the Republic of Korea as a sovereign state. It was the primary Asean nation to determine relations with the Republic of Korea after liberation from Japanese colonial rule on Aug. 15, 1948. The Philippines deployed round 7,400 troopers to assist the South in the course of the Korean Battle.
After the armistice settlement ending the battle, South Korea despatched its first ambassador to the Philippines in January 1954, and in Could that 12 months, the Philippines established a legation in Seoul. The Philippine Embassy in Seoul opened 4 years later in 1958 beneath Ambassador Eduardo Quintero. The Philippines can also be one of many 5 Asean founding members that signed the Bangkok Declaration in 1967.
Bilateral commerce between the 2 nations final 12 months amounted to $15.6 billion. South Korean exports to the Philippines amounted to $12 billion, and imports had been $three.6 billion in 2018. South Korea is the fourth-largest buying and selling companion of the Philippines. Investments quantity to a cumulative whole of $5.6 billion as of 2018.
The 2 nations additionally boast sturdy people-to-people exchanges, and in 2018, the most important variety of South Koreans who travelled abroad took journeys to the Philippines at over 1.58 million guests, whereas there have been 471,532 Filipino guests to South Korea, in response to the South Korean Ministry of International Affairs. There have been 85,103 South Koreans dwelling within the Philippines and 85,103 Filipinos dwelling in Korea.
Myanmar, a rustic wealthy in pure sources that borders China and India, supplied South Korea with some $50,000 value of rice in the course of the 1950-53 Korean Battle. Diplomatic relations between South Korea and Myanmar had been established on Could 16, 1975. Myanmar together with Laos joined Asean on July 23, 1997.
Bilateral commerce between the 2 nations final 12 months amounted to $1.07 billion, with practically equal commerce and export volumes. Funding got here to a cumulative whole of $5.7 billion as of 2018. South Korea is the sixth-largest overseas investor in Myanmar.
In 2018, there have been 72,852 South Korean guests to Myanmar and 71,517 Burmese guests to South Korea, in accordance the South Korean Ministry of International Affairs. Likewise, there have been three,860 South Koreans dwelling in Myanmar and 28,zero74 Burmese folks dwelling in South Korea as of final 12 months.
Myanmar, with over 55 million folks, has a comparatively younger inhabitants with about half the inhabitants beneath the age of 30.
South Korea plans to double its help for Myanmar by way of the Financial Growth Cooperation Fund to $1 billion between 2018 and 2022, compared to the earlier 5 years. South Korea helps to construct the Korea-Myanmar Friendship Bridge over the Yangon River, linking downtown Yangon to Dala Township. The 2 nations are additionally planning the Korea-Myanmar Industrial Complicated, a joint industrial advanced in Hlegu Township, north of Yangon.
Over the previous three a long time, South Korea and the Affiliation of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean) quickly developed relations to grow to be essential strategic companions with vibrant diplomatic, financial and people-to-people exchanges.
Asean was first established in 1967 and is now comprised of 10 members: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.
On Nov. 2, 1989, South Korean International Minister Choi Ho-joong and Indonesian International Minister Ali Alatas, chairman of the Asean standing committee, exchanged paperwork establishing sectoral dialogue relations in Jakarta, Indonesia.
Since then, the connection was elevated to a full dialogue partnership in 1991, a complete cooperation settlement in 2004 and a strategic partnership in 2010.
This 12 months marks the 30th anniversary of relations between South Korea and Asean. Collectively, Asean has a mixed GDP of $2.98 billion and a complete inhabitants of over 654 million.
Asean has emerged as South Korea’s second-largest buying and selling companion with a complete commerce quantity of $159.74 billion in 2018, with $100.11 billion in exports and $59.63 billion in imports. That is greater than double the overall commerce quantity of a decade in the past, which stood at $75 billion in 2009.
South Korea has actively pursued political and safety cooperation with Asean, which has emerged a frontrunner of diplomatic cooperation within the Asia-Pacific area.
The Asian monetary disaster in 1997 was a key impetus for bolstering regional cooperation and the Asean Plus Three summit, with South Korea, China and Japan, and the Asean-South Korea Summit was launched that 12 months.
In 1994, the Asean Regional Discussion board (ARF) was launched and has grow to be a serious safety convention within the Asia-Pacific area which now includes all of the members of the presently defunct six celebration nations for denuclearization talks with Pyongyang — China, Japan, Russia, the USA and the 2 Koreas. World leaders additionally collect for the annual East Asia Summit which convenes alongside the ARF.
All 10 Asean nations keep diplomatic relations with North Korea, resulting in expectations that Southeast Asian nations can function fashions for reform following Pyongyang’s denuclearization.
South Korea has actively participated in Asean-led mechanisms and platforms whereas additionally increasing commerce and cultural exchanges.
From 1987 to 2017, South Korea prolonged $1.eight billion in official improvement help grants and $2.6 billion in loans to Asean nations.
South Korea additionally invested $eight.59 billion in Asean final 12 months, whereas Asean invested $1.54 billion. Between 2013 and 2018, South Korea invested a complete of $93.5 billion in Asean. Asean has a mean estimated development charge of 5 p.c, with nations like Vietnam and Cambodia with an estimated development charge of over 7 p.c.
The South Korea-Asean free commerce settlement (FTA) entered into drive in 2007, and Seoul has additionally been pursuing bilateral FTAs with particular person Southeast Asian nations.
Asean has embraced the Korean Wave, or Hallyu, whereas Southeast Asia is the most well-liked journey vacation spot for South Koreans, with a complete of 11.four million whole folks touring between Korea and Asean final 12 months. There have been eight.98 million Korean vacationers visiting Asean nations and a couple of.46 million Southeast Asian guests to Korea in 2018.
South Korea established its mission to Asean in Jakarta, Indonesia, in 2012, the place the Asean Secretariat is positioned, a sign of Seoul’s diplomatic outreach to the area. Likewise the Asean-Korea Centre, an intergovernmental group in Seoul, was launched in 2009, and the Asean Tradition Home was opened in Busan in 2017.
The New Southern Coverage was unveiled by the Moon Jae-in administration in 2017 as a imaginative and prescient of financial and diplomatic cooperation with Asean and India. It locations South Korea’s relations with Asean on par with the massive 4 nations, the USA, China, Japan and Russia, and is seen as a means of diversify Seoul’s diplomatic portfolio. The coverage is constructed on the “three pillars” of “Folks, Prosperity, and Peace,” which additionally corresponds with the three pillars of the Asean Group unveiled in 2015 that are the political and safety group, the financial group and the sociocultural group.
South Korea hosted the primary particular summit marking the 20th anniversary of relations with Asean on Jeju Island in 2009. The second particular summit marking the 25th anniversary was held in Busan in 2014.
The third particular summit, the 2019 Asean-Republic of Korea Commemorative Summit, will likely be held on Nov. 25 and 26 in Busan. The first Mekong-Korea Summit will happen the next day on Nov. 27, involving the nations alongside the Mekong River: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. The particular summit is predicted to look again on the 30 years of South Korea’s relations with Asean and plan forward for the approaching a long time.
BY SARAH KIM [email@example.com]